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Bibtex Et Al Bibliography Example

When it comes to bibliography management in LaTeX the program natbib is an alternative used in several journals. The program is not actively developed, but is very stable and widely used. This article explains how to use natbib to format and cite bibliographic sources.

Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.

[edit]Introduction

A minimal working example is presented below:

\documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{natbib}\bibliographystyle{unsrtnat}   \title{Bibliography management: \texttt{natbib} package}\author{Share\LaTeX}\date{}   \begin{document}   \maketitle   This document is an example of \texttt{natbib} package using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

In this example there are four basic commands to manage the bibliography:

Imports the package natbib.
Sets the bibliography style unsrtnat. See the article about bibliography styles for more information.
Prints a reference to the citation entry, what is printed depends on the citation style. The word inside the braces corresponds to a particular entry in the bibliography file.
Imports the file sample.bib that contains bibliography sources. See the bibliography file section.

  Open an example of the natbib package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Basic usage

A simple working example was shown at the introduction, there are more bibliography-related commands available.

\documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[square,numbers]{natbib}\bibliographystyle{abbrvnat}   \title{Bibliography management: \texttt{natbib} package}\author{Share\LaTeX}\date{}   \begin{document}   \maketitle   This document is an example of \texttt{natbib} package using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \citet{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

There are a few changes in this example:

  • The options and in enable squared brackets and numeric citations respectively. See the reference guide for a list of package options
  • The command adds the name of the author to the citation mark, regardless of the citation style.

  Open an example of the natbib package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]The bibliography file

The bibliography files must have the standard bibtex syntax and the extension .bib. They contain a list of bibliography sources and several fields with information about each entry.

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. The information about this entry is enclosed within braces. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is a unique identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be printed and referenced within a LaTeX document, as shown in the previous sections, with the command . Not all the information in the .bib file will be displayed, it depends on the bibliography style set in the document.

  Open an example of the natbib package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Adding the bibliography in the table of contents

If you want the bibliography to be included in the table of contents, importing the package tocbibind in the preamble will do the trick:

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \section{First Section} This document ...   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

Adding the line


to the preamble will print the "References" or "Bibliography" in the table of contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see the tocbibind package documentation.

  Open an example of the natbib package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Reference guide

natbib package options

  • for round parentheses
  • uses square brackets
  • curly braces
  • angle braces or chevrons
  • separates multiple citations with semicolons
  • same as
  • separate multiple citations with commas
  • for author-year citations
  • for numerical citations
  • superscripts for numerical citations, as in Nature
  • orders multiple citations according to the list of references
  • same as but multiple numerical citations are compressed if possible
  • compress without sorting
  • the full name of the author will appear in the first citation of any reference
  • To be used with the package chapterbib to add the bibliography to the table of contents as a unnumbered section instead of an unnumbered chapter
  • prevents hyphenation of author names
  • to omit common elements of merged references

Standard entry types

Article from a magazine or journal
A published book
A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
An article in a conference proceedings
A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
A part of a book having its own title
An article in a conference proceedings
Technical documentation
A Master's thesis
Something that doesn't fit in any other type
A PhD thesis
The same as
Report published by an institution
Document not formally published, with author and title


Most common fields used in BibTeX

address annote author
booktitle chaper crossref
edition editor institution
journal key month
note number organization
pages publisher school
series title type
volume year URL
ISBN ISSN LCCN
abstract keywords price
copyright language contents

[edit]Further reading

For more information see

@article{einstein, author = "Albert Einstein", title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. ({German}) [{On} the electrodynamics of moving bodies]", journal = "Annalen der Physik", volume = "322", number = "10", pages = "891--921", year = "1905", DOI = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053221004" }   @book{latexcompanion, author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin", title = "The \LaTeX\ Companion", year = "1993", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, Massachusetts" }   @misc{knuthwebsite, author = "Donald Knuth", title = "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting", url = "http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html" }
\usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}

LaTeX forum ⇒ BibTeX, biblatex and biber ⇒ BibTeX doesn't abbreviate to “et al.”Topic is solved

Information and discussion about BiBTeX - the bibliography tool for LaTeX documents.









julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

BibTeX doesn't abbreviate to “et al.”

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:57 pm

This is an exact copy of my question at: http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/297271/bibtex-harvard-agsm-doesnt-abbreviate-to-et-al-for-duplicate-authoryear, which didn't get any replies. Apologies for cross-posting, but I have to finish a PhD thesis

With BibTeX and the harvard/AGSM style, some references (from authors who have multiple papers per year) aren't abbreviated to "et al.", with the addition of a, b, et cetera. For example, with the code attached below, I get:



Only one paper is abbreviated to et al., the others not. Any idea why this is happening? The in-text references should be Basu et al. (2008a) and Basu et al. (2008b), which I believe AGSM should automatically do?

It actually works correctly if both papers (basu2008a, basu2008b) have the exact same authors (result: Basu et al. (2008a,b)), or if one of the papers only has one author (result: Basu et al. (2008), Basu (2008)) or two authors (result; Basu et al. (2008), Basu & Holtslag (2008)). But as soon as it needs to add the a or b, something fails and the full list of authors is writting in-text.



With Bibtex file:

  1. \documentclass[10pt,a4paper]{article}
  2. \cite{basu2008a, basu2008b, beare2006}
  3. \bibliography{references.bib}
  1. @string{jam="J. Appl. Meteor."}
  2. @string{ag="Acta Geop."}
  3. @string{blm="Bound.-Layer Meteor."}
  4. author={Basu, S. and Vinuesa, J.-F. and Swift, A.},
  5. title={Dynamic {LES} modeling of a diurnal cycle},
  6. author={Basu, S. and Holtslag, A. A. M. and Wiel, B. J. H. and Moene, A. F. and Steeneveld, G. J.},
  7. title={An inconvenient "truth" about using sensible heat flux as a surface boundary condition in models under stably stratified regimes},
  8. author={Beare,R. J. and Macvean,M. K. and Holtslag,A. A. M. and Cuxart,J. and Esau,I. and Golaz,J. -. and Jimenez,M. A. and Khairoutdinov,M. and Kosovic,B. and Lewellen,D. and Lund,T. S. and Lundquist,J. K. and McCabe,A. and Moene,A. F. and Noh,Y. and Raasch,S. and Sullivan,P.},
  9. title={An intercomparison of large-eddy simulations of the stable boundary layer},
Johannes_B
Site Moderator
Posts:3639
Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Mon Mar 14, 2016 3:15 pm

Welcome, you poste a link and clearly stated that this is a crosspost, so this is no problem at all.


What you see is a very important feature. It makes the entries really unique.
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 3:28 pm

Johannes_B wrote:What you see is a very important feature. It makes the entries really unique.


But I thought that using the Harvard style this should be abbreviated to bla (2008a), bla (2008b)?

Multiple references to the same author
If you cite different documents by the same author which were published in the same year, to distinguish between them add the letters a, b, c, etc. in lower case after the year. Repeat in the reference list.
Example: ... (Williamson, 2001a), (Williamson, 2001b) etc. ...

http://www.kit.nl/health/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/09/Harvard-Ref.pdf
Johannes_B
Site Moderator
Posts:3639
Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Mon Mar 14, 2016 4:10 pm

Harvard Referencing just means author date referencing.

You stated yourself in your question, that it works if the author is the same (no matter if one name or a matching list of names), so you need an extra letter to uniquely cite.

Consider the following: Basu, Gonzales, Jesus, Fernandez (2009) and Basu, Smith, Edinborough, Wright (2009)

Would you feel confident to replace this with Basu (2009a) and Basu (2009b)?
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 5:19 pm

I don't see the difference? I mean, two different papers which both have the exact same list of authors are abbreviated to "Basu et al. (2008a), Basu et al. (2008b)", with the resulting references as (this is actually what Bibtex/AGSM creates):

Basu, S., Vinuesa, J.-F. & Swift, A. (2008a), ‘Dynamic LES modeling of a diurnal cycle’, J. Appl. Meteor. 47(4), 1156–1174.
Basu, S., Vinuesa, J.-F. & Swift, A. (2008b), ‘An inconvenient ”truth” about using sensible heat flux as a surface boundary condition in models under stably stratified regimes’, Acta Geop. 56(1), 88–99.


Then why not do the same thing for two publications which have different authors, like in my example? As long as the addition a/b is also present in the bibliography (like in the example above), the in-text references are uniquely labeled?
Johannes_B
Site Moderator
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Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Tue Mar 15, 2016 1:32 am

This is science/engineering ... when you don't know an answer but know the guy who might now the answer, you are golden.

I will add mico's answer tomorrow.
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
Johannes_B
Site Moderator
Posts:3639
Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Tue Mar 15, 2016 7:45 pm

Mico posted an answer on TeX.SX:
Mico wrote:You've come across an unusual -- and admittedly rather severely under-documented -- feature (not a bug...) of the `agsm` bibliography style. Suppose two bib items labelled, say, `AA` and `BB` each have one or more authors. Crucially, suppose the *total number* of authors differs -- e.g., let bibitem `AA` have 3 authors and bibitem `BB` have 5 authors -- and suppose further that `AA` and `BB` share the same first author (say, `XYZ`) *and* the same publication year (say, `2000`).

When this occurs -- as is the case in the example you've posted -- the `agsm` bibliography style does *not* set the citation call-outs as `XYZ et al (2000a)` and `XYZ et al. (2000b)`, respectively. Instead, it lists *all author names* for both publications.

I suppose this is a fail-safe way of avoiding any kind of confusion over whose publication might be cited as `XYZ et al. (2000a)`.

The only time when you do get the `FirstAuthor et al (year)` citation call-out pattern is if (a) the two publications have the same authors (and thus the same *number* of authors) as well as the same publication year *and* (b) there is no other three-or-more-author publication in the bibliography that features the same first author and publication year.

Again, this feature of the `agsm` style is both uncommon (to put it neutrally) and, unfortunately, quite obscure and under-documented. I wouldn't call it a bug, though. If you truly can't stand this feature, it's probably a good idea to start looking for an alternative bibliography style.

An MWE and screenshot:



  1. \RequirePackage{filecontents}
  2. \begin{filecontents}{testagsm.bib}
  3. author = "XYZ", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  4. author = "XYZ and B", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  5. author = "XYZ and B and C", title = "x1", journal = "y", year = 2000}
  6. author = "XYZ and B and C", title = "x2", journal = "y", year = 2000}
  7. author = "XYZ and BB and CC and DD", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  8. author = "XYZ and BBB and CCC and DDD and EEE", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  9. author = "A and B and C", title = "D1", journal = "E1",
  10. year = 3001, volume = 1, number = 2, pages = "3-4"}
  11. author = "A and B and C", title = "D2", journal = "E2",
  12. year = 3001, volume = 5, number = 6, pages = "7-8"}
  13. \usepackage{natbib,har2nat}
  14. \setlength\parindent{0pt}% just for this example
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.

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