The Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty – or SALT I – was the first anti-ballistic missile treaty signed between the United States and the Soviet Union, and resulted in groundbreaking, unprecedented levels of agreement between the two ideological foes. For the first time in history, the superpowers agreed to place limits on many of their most vital armaments.
The two nations hotly debated this for over two years, beginning in November 1969 and capping with the signing of an Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms in May 1972, during the Nixons historic trip to the Soviet Union – the first for an American President. The interim agreement, which is commonly referred to as the SALT I Treaty, froze the total number of Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles in each country’s respective arsenal. In order to prevent advances in destructive technology, and achieve an actual reduction in nuclear arms, the two nations began SALT II talks in November 1972 in Geneva.
Without the unique relationship between President Nixon and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, detailed more in a previous article, the swift results may not have been attained so easily. This, coupled with several dozen other game-changing factors which differentiated Nixon Administration negotiations from those of previous administrations, allowed for a different approach in regard to the Soviet Union, culminating in this agreement.
As any student of U.S. government knows, a treaty isn’t official until approved by the U.S. Congress. So although the signing took place in May, with all its fanfare and clinking of glasses, it was not until September 30, 1972 that the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty took effect – thirty-eight years ago, today.
“I think what is particularly pleasing – pleasing in the sense of how our system works – is that this agreement has had bipartisan support in the fullest sense,” noted the President. He swiftly signed the executive agreement approving the treaty in the Treaty Room (named appropriately for this matter).
According to the POTUS, the SALT I Treaty was “the beginning of a process that is enormously important that will limit now, and, we hope, later reduce the burden of arms, and thereby reduce the danger of war.” The discussions leading up to the signing also resulted in the important Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, signed along with the Interim Agreement.
Cold War history buffs will tell you that the SALT I Treaty began the process of negotiation between the superpower rivals, as this legislative giant was coupled with the ABM Treaty, soon followed by SALT II, and eventually enhanced and reformed into the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of the Reagan years.
Original Photo Caption: May 1972, Moscow, USSR — President Richard Nixon shakes hands with Leonid Brezhnev after the signing of the SALT treaty. Among those in the audience, in the front row between Nixon and Brezhnev, are Podgorny, Kosygin, and Andrei Gromyko.
Al-Jamia-tus-Salafiah (Markazi Darul-Uloom) Varanasi, India is a central institution of education and training. It is the out come of the dreams and blessings of the well wishers of Jama’at Ahle Hadith. This education centre was founded in 1963 by the honourable ambassador of Saudi Arabia – Yusuf Al-Fauzan under the movement of All India Ahle Hadith Conference (The biggest wing of Jama’at Ahle Hadith).
Then it was inaugurated in 1966 by Allama Abdul Qadir Shaibatul Hamd – the representative of Sheikh Ibn Baz (Rahimahullah) Vice Chancellor of Jamia Islamia, Madina Munauwarah (K.S.A.). And the task of education and training started in a planned way with the help of highly qualified teachers. Fifty years have passed since the foundation of the Jamiah and by Allah’s grace during this span of time it has performed marvelous feat in the field of developments for the acquisition of its aims and objectives. Groups of ulema du’at, writers and research scholars have regularly been working for the upliftment of religion. The discharged students of the Jamiah have been joining other universities of India, Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries, for higher education. Some of them are in government service and some are working in private departments of education and research and earning fame for themselves and for the Jamia as well.
Jamiah has progressed according to its plan and new departments have been opened at regular basis, at the same time its requirements and needs have also been increasing. But so far, we have been able to cross all the hurdles by the grace of Allah and support of helping persons like you.