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Learning Outcomes Measured Effectively Essay Items

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1. Drew S. Student perceptions of what helps them learn and develop in higher education. Teaching Higher Educ. 2001;6(3):309–331.

2. Scouller K. The influence of assessment method on students’ learning approaches: multiple-choice question examination versus assignment essay. Higher Educ. 1998;35:453–472.

3. Struyven K, Dochy F, Janssens S. Students’ perceptions about evaluation and assessment in higher education: a review. Assess Evaluation Higher Educ. 2005;30(4):325–341.

4. Trigwell K, Prosser M. Improving the quality of student learning: the influence of learning context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes. Higher Educ. 1991;22:251–266.

5. Biggs J. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Philadelphia: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press; 2003.

6. Reid WA, Duvall E, Evans P. Relationship between assessment results and approaches to learning and studying in Year Two medical students. Med Educ. 2007;41:754–762.[PubMed]

7. Abdel-Hameed AA, Al-Faris EA, Alorainy IA. The criteria and analysis of good multiple choice questions in a health professional setting. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(10):1505–1510.[PubMed]

8. Case S, Swanson D. Constructing written test questions for the basic and clinical sciences. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners; 2003.

9. Tarrant M, Ware JA. Framework for improving the quality of multiple-choice Assessments. Nurse Educator. 2012;37(3):98–104. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e31825041d0. [PubMed]

10. Pepple DJ, Laurine YE, Carroll RG. A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus) Adv Physiol Educ. 2010;34(2):86–89. doi: 10.1152/advan.00087.2009. [PubMed]

11. Oyebola DO, Adewoye OE, Iyaniwura J O, Alada RA, Fasanmade AA, Raji YA. Comparative study of students’ performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions. Afr J Med Sci. 2000;29:201–205.[PubMed]

12. Epstein MR. Assessment in Medical Education. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:387–396.[PubMed]

13. Buckwalter JA, Schumacher R, Albright JP. Use of an educational taxonomy for evaluation of cognitive performance. J Med Educ. 1981;56:115–121.[PubMed]

14. Bloom B, Englehart M, Furst E. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans; 1956.

15. Haladyna TM, Downing SM, Rodriguez MC. A review of multiple-choice item writing guidelines. Applied Meas Educ. 2002;15:309–333.

16. Tarrant M, Ware J. Impact of item-writing flaws in multiple choice questions on student achievement in high-stakes nursing assessments. Med Educ. 2008;42:198–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02957. [PubMed]

17. Khan MZ, Aljarallah BM. MEQs and MCQ as a tool for assessing the cognitive skills of undergraduate medical students. Int J Heal Sci. 2011;5(1):45–50.[PMC free article][PubMed]

18. Jozefowicz RF, Koeppen BM, Case S. The quality of in-house medical school examinations. Acad Med. 2002;77(2):156–161.[PubMed]

19. Mukhopadhyay M, Bhowmick M, Chakraborty S. Evaluation of MCQs for judgment of higher levels of cognitive learning. Gomal J Med Sci. 2010;8(2):112–116.

20. Palmer EJ, Devitt PG. Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? BMC Med Educ. 2007;7:49.[PMC free article][PubMed]

21. Downing SM. The effects of violating standard item writing principles on tests and students: the consequences of using flawed test items on achievement examinations in medical education. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2005;10(2):133–143.[PubMed]

22. Downing SM. Construct-irrelevant variance and flawed test questions: do multiple-choice item-writing principles make any difference? . Acad Med. 2002;77(Supll):103–104.[PubMed]

23. Al Muhaidib NS. Types of Item-Writing Flaws in Multiple Choice Question Pattern- A comparative study. J Educ Psychol Sci. 2010;2(2):9–45.

24. Downing SM. Twelve steps for effective test development. In: Downing SM, Haladyna TM, editors. Handbook of test development. Mahwah NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 2006. pp. 3–25.

25. Tarrant M, Knierim A, Hayes SK. The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments. Nurse Educ Pract. 2006;6:354–363.[PubMed]